France Population

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This article is about the demographic features of the population of France, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects.

As of January 1, 2011, 65,821,885 people live in the French Republic.[1] 63,136,180 of these live in metropolitan France,[2] whereas 2,685,705 live in the French overseas departments and territories.

At the beginning of the 20th century, France's population was low compared to its neighbours and to its past history. However, the country's population sharply increased with the baby boom following World War II. During the Trente Glorieuses (1945–1974), the country's reconstruction and steady economic growth led to the labor-immigration of the 1960s, when many employers found manpower in villages located in Southern Europe and in the Maghreb (or North Africa). French law facilitated the immigration of thousands of colons, ethnic or national French from former colonies of North and West Africa, India and Indochina, to mainland France. 1.6 million European pieds noirs migrated from Algeria, Tunisia and Morocco.[3] In the 1970s, over 30,000 French colons left Cambodia during the Khmer Rouge regime as the Pol Pot government confiscated their farms and land properties. However, after the 1973 energy crisis, laws limiting immigration were passed. In addition, the country's birth rate dropped significantly during this time.

 
Since the 1980s, France has continued being a country of mass immigration. Meanwhile, the national birth rate, after continuing to drop for a time, began to rebound in the 1990s and currently the country's fertility rate is close to the replacement level. In recent years, immigrants have accounted for one quarter of the population growth - a lower proportion than in most other European countries. According to an INSEE 2006 study, "The natural increase is close to 300,000 persons, a level that has not been reached in more than thirty years. Net migration is estimated at 93,600 persons, slightly more than in 2005."[4]

France was historically the largest nation of Europe. During the Middle Ages more than one quarter of Europe’s population was French; during the 17th century it was still one fifth.

Starting around 1800, the historical evolution of the population in France has been extremely atypical in the Western World. Unlike the rest of Europe, France did not experience a strong population growth in the 19th century and first half of the 20th century. The birth rate in France diminished much earlier than in the rest of Europe. Consequently, population growth was quite slow in the 19th century, and the nadir was reached in the first half of the 20th century when France, surrounded by the rapidly growing populations of Germany and the United Kingdom, experienced virtually zero growth. This, and the bloody losses in France's population due to the First World War, may explain the sudden collapse of France in 1940 during the Second World War.[original research?] France was often perceived as a country facing irrecoverable decline.[citation needed] At the time, racist theories were quite popular, and the dramatic demographic decline of France was often attributed (particularly in Nazi Germany, and also in some conservative circles in England and elsewhere) to the genetic characteristics of the "French race", a race destined to fail in the face of the Germanic and Anglo-Saxon "races". In addition, the slow growth of France's population in the 19th century was reflected in the country's very low emigration rate. While millions of people from all other parts of Europe moved to the Americas, few French did so. Most people in the United States of French extraction are descended from immigrants from French Canada, whose population was rapidly growing at this time.
Between 1815 and 2000, if the population of France had grown at the same rate as the population of Germany during the same time period, France's population would be 110 million today—and this does not take into account the fact that a large chunk of Germany's population growth was siphoned off by emigration to the Americas, and suffered much larger military and civilian losses during the World Wars than France did. If France's population had grown at the same rate as England and Wales (whose rate was also siphoned off by emigration to the Americas, Australia and New Zealand), France's population could be anywhere up to 150 million today. And if one starts the comparison at the time of King Louis XIV (the Sun King), then France would in fact have the same population as the United States. While France had been very powerful in Europe at the time of Louis XIV or Napoleon, the demographic decline the country experienced after 1800 resulted in it losing this advantage.

After World War II

After 1945 however, France suddenly underwent a demographic recovery. In the 1930s the French government, alarmed by the decline of France's population, had passed laws to boost the birth rate, giving state benefits to families with children. Nonetheless, no one can quite satisfactorily explain this sudden and unexpected recovery in the demography of France, which was often portrayed as a "miracle" inside France. This demographic recovery was again atypical in the Western World, in the sense that although the rest of the Western World experienced a baby boom immediately after the war, the baby boom in France was much stronger, and above all it lasted longer than in most other countries of the Western World (the United States being one of the few exceptions). In the 1950s and 1960s France enjoyed a population growth of 1% a year, which is the highest growth in the history of France, not even matched in the best periods of the 18th or 19th centuries.

Since 1975, France's population growth rate has significantly diminished, but it still remains slightly faster than that of the rest of Europe, and much faster than it was at the end of the 19th century and during the first half of the 20th century. In the first decade of the third millennium, population growth in France is the fastest of Europe, matched only by Ireland and the Netherlands. However, it is slower than that of the United States, largely because of the higher net migration rate of the USA.

The following list shows the past, present, and future weight of France's population in Europe and in the world:
(historical populations are counted in the 2011 borders)

    until 1795 metropolitan France was the most populous country of Europe, above even Russia, and the third most populous country in the world, behind only China and India
    between 1795 and 1866, metropolitan France was the second most populous country of Europe, behind Russia, and the fourth most populous country in the world, behind China, India, and Russia
    between 1866 and 1909, metropolitan France was the third most populous country of Europe, behind Russia and Germany
    between 1909 and 1933, metropolitan France was the fourth most populous country of Europe, behind Russia, Germany, and the United Kingdom
    between 1933 and 1991, metropolitan France was the fifth most populous country of Europe, behind Russia, Germany, the United Kingdom, and Italy
    between 1991 and 2000, metropolitan France recovered its rank as the fourth most populous country of Europe, behind Russia, Germany, and the United Kingdom
    since 2000, metropolitan France has recovered its rank as the third most populous country of Europe, behind Russia and Germany. Worldwide, France's ranking has fallen to twentieth most populous country.
    In 2005 it was expected that current demographic trends continuing (i.e. declining population in Germany, and slightly rising population in France and the UK), around 2050 metropolitan France could again surpass the population of Germany, becoming the most populous state in the European Union.[5] But more recent (2009) UN projections say that the stronger-growing United Kingdom could be more populous than metropolitan France in 2050, leaving metropolitan France third amongst European nations, behind Russia and the UK,[6] but the entire French Republic will remain more populated than the UK.[7]

Note that in the above list, Turkey is not regarded as a European country. Turkey was less populous than metropolitan France until 1992, and has been more populous since then.[8]
[edit] Vital statistics[9]
    Average population (x 1000)     Live births     Deaths     Natural change     Crude birth rate (per 1000)     Crude death rate (per 1000)     Natural change (per 1000)
1901     40 710     917 075     825 315     91 760     22.5     20.3     2.3
1902     40 810     904 434     801 379     103 055     22.2     19.6     2.5
1903     40 910     884 498     794 566     89 932     21.6     19.4     2.2
1904     41 000     877 091     802 536     74 555     21.4     19.6     1.8
1905     41 050     865 604     812 338     53 266     21.1     19.8     1.3
1906     41 100     864 745     820 051     44 694     21.0     20.0     1.1
1907     41 100     829 632     830 871     -1 239     20.2     20.2     0.0
1908     41 190     848 982     784 415     64 567     20.6     19.0     1.6
1909     41 240     824 739     792 798     31 941     20.0     19.2     0.8
1910     41 350     828 140     737 877     90 263     20.0     17.8     2.2
1911     41 420     793 506     813 653     -20 147     19.2     19.6     -0.5
1912     41 530     801 642     726 848     74 794     19.3     17.5     1.8
1913     41 620     795 851     736 937     58 914     19.1     17.7     1.4
1914     41 630     757 931     774 931     -17 000     18.2     18.6     -0.4
1915     40 620     482 968     747 968     -265 000     11.9     18.4     -6.5
1916     40 020     384 676     697 676     -313 000     9.6     17.4     -7.8
1917     39 420     412 744     712 744     -300 000     10.5     18.1     -7.6
1918     38 670     472 816     867 816     -395 000     12.2     22.4     -10.2
1919     38 600     506 960     739 901     -232 941     13.1     19.2     -6.0
1920     38 900     838 137     675 676     162 461     21.5     17.4     4.2
1921     39 140     816 555     697 904     118 651     20.9     17.8     3.0
1922     39 310     764 373     692 322     72 051     19.4     17.6     1.8
1923     39 750     765 888     670 326     95 562     19.3     16.9     2.4
1924     40 170     757 873     683 296     74 577     18.9     17.0     1.9
1925     40 460     774 455     712 211     62 244     19.1     17.6     1.5
1926     40 710     771 690     716 966     54 724     19.0     17.6     1.3
1927     40 770     748 102     679 809     68 293     18.3     16.7     1.7
1928     40 880     753 570     678 269     75 301     18.4     16.6     1.8
1929     41 020     734 140     742 732     -8 592     17.9     18.1     -0.2
1930     41 340     754 020     652 953     101 067     18.2     15.8     2.4
1931     41 550     737 611     682 816     54 795     17.8     16.4     1.3
1932     41 510     726 299     663 705     62 594     17.5     16.0     1.5
1933     41 520     682 394     664 133     18 261     16.4     16.0     0.4
1934     41 570     681 518     637 713     43 805     16.4     15.3     1.1
1935     41 550     643 870     661 722     -17 852     15.5     15.9     -0.4
1936     41 500     634 344     645 844     -11 500     15.3     15.6     -0.3
1937     41 530     621 453     632 896     -11 443     15.0     15.2     -0.3
1938     41 560     615 582     650 832     -35 250     14.8     15.7     -0.8
1939     41 510     615 599     645 677     -30 078     14.8     15.6     -0.7
1940     40 690     561 281     740 281     -179 000     13.8     18.2     -4.4
1941     39 420     522 261     675 261     -153 000     13.2     17.1     -3.9
1942     39 220     575 261     656 261     -81 000     14.7     16.7     -2.1
1943     38 860     615 780     626 780     -11 000     15.8     16.1     -0.3
1944     38 770     629 878     666 878     -37 000     16.2     17.2     -1.0
1945     39 660     645 899     643 899     2 000     16.3     16.2     0.1
1946     40 287     843 904     545 880     298 024     20.9     13.5     7.4
1947     40 679     870 472     538 157     332 315     21.4     13.2     8.2
1948     41 112     870 836     513 210     357 626     21.2     12.5     8.7
1949     41 480     872 661     573 598     299 063     21.0     13.8     7.2
1950     41 829     862 310     534 480     327 830     20.6     12.8     7.8
1951     42 156     826 722     565 829     260 893     19.6     13.4     6.2
1952     42 460     822 204     524 831     297 373     19.4     12.4     7.0
1953     42 752     804 696     556 983     247 713     18.8     13.0     5.8
1954     43 057     810 754     518 892     291 862     18.8     12.1     6.8
1955     43 428     805 917     526 322     279 595     18.6     12.1     6.4
1956     43 843     806 916     545 700     261 216     18.4     12.4     6.0
1957     44 311     816 467     532 107     284 360     18.4     12.0     6.4
1958     44 789     812 215     500 596     311 619     18.1     11.2     7.0
1959     45 240     829 249     509 114     320 135     18.3     11.3     7.1
1960     45 684     819 819     520 960     298 859     17.9     11.4     6.5
1961     46 163     838 633     500 289     338 344     18.2     10.8     7.3
1962     46 998     832 353     541 147     291 206     17.7     11.5     6.2
1963     47 816     868 876     557 852     311 024     18.2     11.7     6.5
1964     48 310     877 804     520 033     357 771     18.2     10.8     7.4
1965     48 758     865 688     543 696     321 992     17.8     11.2     6.6
1966     49 164     863 527     528 782     334 745     17.6     10.8     6.8
1967     49 548     840 568     543 033     297 535     17.0     11.0     6.0
1968     49 915     835 796     553 441     282 355     16.7     11.1     5.7
1969     50 318     842 245     573 335     268 910     16.7     11.4     5.3
1970     50 772     850 381     542 277     308 104     16.7     10.7     6.1
1971     51 251     881 284     554 151     327 133     17.2     10.8     6.4
1972     51 701     877 506     549 900     327 606     17.0     10.6     6.3
1973     52 118     857 186     558 782     298 404     16.4     10.7     5.7
1974     52 460     801 218     552 551     248 667     15.3     10.5     4.7
1975     52 699     745 065     560 353     184 712     14.1     10.6     3.5
1976     52 909     720 395     557 114     163 281     13.6     10.5     3.1
1977     53 145     744 744     536 221     208 523     14.0     10.1     3.9
1978     53 376     737 062     546 916     190 146     13.8     10.2     3.6
1979     53 606     757 354     541 805     215 549     14.1     10.1     4.0
1980     53 880     800 376     547 107     253 269     14.9     10.2     4.7
1981     54 182     805 483     554 823     250 660     14.9     10.2     4.6
1982     54 492     797 223     543 104     254 119     14.6     10.0     4.7
1983     54 772     748 525     559 655     188 870     13.7     10.2     3.4
1984     55 026     759 939     542 490     217 449     13.8     9.9     4.0
1985     55 284     768 431     552 496     215 935     13.9     10.0     3.9
1986     55 577     778 468     546 926     231 542     14.0     9.8     4.2
1987     55 824     767 828     527 466     240 362     13.8     9.4     4.3
1988     56 118     771 268     524 600     246 668     13.7     9.3     4.4
1989     56 423     765 473     529 283     236 190     13.6     9.4     4.2
1990     56 709     762 407     526 201     236 206     13.4     9.3     4.2
1991     56 976     759 056     524 685     234 371     13.3     9.2     4.1
1992     57 240     743 658     521 530     222 128     13.0     9.1     3.9
1993     57 467     711 610     532 263     179 347     12.4     9.3     3.1
1994     57 659     710 993     519 965     191 028     12.3     9.0     3.3
1995     57 844     729 609     531 618     197 991     12.6     9.2     3.4
1996     58 026     734 338     535 775     198 563     12.7     9.2     3.4
1997     58 207     726 768     530 319     196 449     12.5     9.1     3.4
1998     58 398     738 080     534 005     204 075     12.6     9.1     3.5
1999     58 661     744 791     537 661     207 130     12.7     9.2     3.5
2000     59 049     774 782     530 864     243 918     13.1     9.0     4.1
2001     59 477     770 945     531 073     239 872     13.0     8.9     4.0
2002     59 894     761 630     535 144     226 486     12.7     8.9     3.8
2003     60 304     761 464     552 339     209 125     12.6     9.2     3.5
2004     60 735     767 816     509 429     258 387     12.6     8.4     4.3
2005     61 182     774 355     527 533     246 822     12.7     8.6     4.0
2006     61 586     796 896     516 416     280 480     12.9     8.4     4.6
2007     61 939     785 985     521 016     264 969     12.7     8.4     4.3
2008     62 278     796 044     533 000     263 044     12.8     8.6     4.2
2009     62 621     793 420     538 116     255 304     12.7     8.6     4.1
2010 (e)     62 965     796 000     535 000     261 000     12.6     8.5     4.1

e=first estimate

 Ethnic groups

The modern ethnic French are the descendants of Celts, Iberians, Ligurians and Greeks in southern France,[10][11] later mixed with large group of Germanic peoples arriving at the end of the Roman Empire such as the Franks the Burgundians, Alamanni and Goths[12] , very small portions of Moors and Saracens in the south,[13][14][15][16][17][18][19] and Scandinavians, Vikings who became the Normans and settled mostly in Normandy in the 9th century.[20][21]

It is illegal for the French state to collect data on ethnicity and race, a law with its origins in the 1789 revolution and reaffirmed in the constitution of 1958.[22] Some organizations, such as the Representative Council of Black Associations (French: Conseil représentatif des associations noires de France, CRAN), have argued in favour of the introduction of data collection on minority groups but this has been resisted by other organizations and ruling politicians,[23][24] often on the grounds that collecting such statistics goes against France's secular principles and harks back to Vichy-era identity documents.[25] During the 2007 presidential election, however, Nicolas Sarkozy was polled on the issue and stated that he favoured the collection of data on ethnicity.[26] Part of a parliamentary bill which would have permitted the collection of data for the purpose of measuring discrimination was rejected by the Conseil Constitutionnel in November 2007.[22]

An estimated thirteen million residents of France, or about one-fifth of the population, are of ethnic or national non-French origins. Of European ethnic groups not indigenous to France, the most numerous are people of Italian family origin and it is estimated that about 5 million citizen (8% of the population) are at least partly of Italian origin if their parentage is retraced over three generations.[27] This is due to waves of Italian immigration, notably during the late 19th century and early 20th century. Other large European groups of non-native origin are Spaniards, Portuguese, Polish, and Greeks. Also, due to more recent immigration, a total of five million Arab-Berber people and approximately 500,000 Turks inhabit France.[citation needed] An influx of North African Jews immigrated to France in the 1950s and after the Algerian War due to the decline of the French empire. Subsequent waves of immigration followed the Six-Day War, when some Moroccan and Tunisian Jews settled in France. Hence, by 1968, North African Jews were about 500,000 and the majority in France. As these new immigrants were already culturally French they needed little time to adjust to French society. Black people come from both the French overseas territories and Sub-Saharan Africa.

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demographics_of_France

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